Monday, November 21, 2005

Seventh Lesson

"Guiding spirit" of Nuremberg trials was part of the Freud family

Historical trivial pursuit...

Edward Bernays is called by many the "father of public relations", though it's my opinion he's more the progenitor of modern spin. He called his activities the "engineering of consent". Bernays was also Sigmund Freud's nephew, a link that he ceaselessly used in his business as a method of promoting himself. He perfected much of his techniques during World War I, crafting propaganda for for the U.S. Committee on Public Information in the Foreign Press Bureau. After the War, he was part of the official press office for the Versailles Peace Conference.

In 1919, he founded his PR biz "Edward L. Bernays Publicity Direction". His first clients were the American Civil Liberties Union, the Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropies, the Lithuanian National Council and the United States War Department.

His brother-in-law, Murray Bernays*, was hired as one of his first employees. Murray did research and writing for the company. Later, Murray became a successful attorney in New York City.

As noted below, Murray is credited with being "the guiding spirit leading the way to Nuremberg".

...By the end of July, he [Edward Bernays] also realized he could afford to rent his own three-room office on the fifth floor of an old building at 19 East 48th Street. He calculated his first month's expenses for rent and furniture at $1,357. And his first employee, Fleischman, was a bargain at $50 a week. She quickly helped him hire a secretary, a mail clerk, an office boy, and his brother-in-law Murray C. Bernays, who was paid $75 a week to do research and some writing.[22]

...Note 22: Bernays, Biography of An Idea, 193-94; interview with Edward L. Bernays, October 29, 1989, Cambridge, Mass. *Murray Bernays, born Murray Cohen, married Bernays's sister Hella in 1917 and shortly afterwards had his name legally changed to Murray C. Bernays to keep his wife's family name alive. Edward Bernays had said he would never marry, and all his siblings were female. Murray Bernays was divorced from Hella Bernays in 1924 but kept her last name. See "Murray Bernays, Lawyer, Dead; Set Nuremberg Trials Format," New York Times undated clipping (probably 1970s), box III:6, Edward L. Bernays Papers, LC.

Learning to Swim Skillfully in Uncharted Waters:
Doris E. Fleischman, 1913-1922

...Two Jewish officers in the US Army -- Lieutenant Colonel Murray Bernays and Colonel David "Mickey" Marcus -- played key roles in the Nuremberg enterprise. In the words of historian Robert Conot, Bernays was "the guiding spirit leading the way to Nuremberg." Bernays, a successful New York attorney, persuaded US War Secretary Henry Stimson and others to accept the idea of putting the defeated German leaders on trial.

Marcus, a fervent Zionist, became the "number three man in making American policy" in occupied Germany. As chief of the US government's War Crimes Branch in 1946 and 1947, he selected almost all of the judges, prosecutors and lawyers for the Nuremberg NMT Trials. (He later became a commander of Zionist "Haganah" military forces in Palestine.)

The Nuremberg Trials and the Holocaust by Mark Weber


SEVENTH LESSON: "The unapparent connection is more powerful than the apparent one."

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